Saturday, June 27, 2015

10 Types of Seafood You Really Shouldn't Eat (and 10 You Should)

10 Types of Seafood You Really Shouldn't Eat (and 10 You Should)

By: Dan Gentile
10 Types of Seafood You Really Shouldn't Eat (and 10 You Should)
Credit: Shutterstock
It may seem like the ocean is just a bottomless pit of fish sticks and sushi, but the reality is that our supply of seafood is finite. Through rampant overfishing and just generally treating the ocean like a cheap buffet, we’ve depleted the populations and ruined the habitats of some truly delicious fish.
To find out which species are in the most danger, we spoke with Reid Bogert, sustainability coordinator at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, who in addition to scaring us skate (zing!), offered some tasty alternatives. Read on to learn more about which salmon is safe, which seafood certifications to look for, and why grouper are basically screwed.
Credit: Dan Gentile/Thrillist
Atlantic salmon
Reid says:
“The stocks on the East Coast where these are native have just not been managed as well as in Alaska and California, where the salmon are plentiful and healthy.”
Another option: “Pacific salmon is only available a few months of the year, but Arctic char is in the same family and is available year-round. It has a similar beautiful pink meat and flavor profile that’s rich in fatty acids. They don’t require much fish feed, so they have a smaller footprint.”
Reid says:
“Swordfish is a popular dish all over the world that has been overfished using a certain technique called longline fishing. It puts other wildlife at risk because you can have miles of baited line trailing a boat. All of that fishing line makes other sea life vulnerable. Sea turtles, sharks, even albatross can grab a line and become what’s called bycatch.”
Another option: “Look for swordfish with a third-party certification from a non-profit, like Marine Stewardship Certification or Best Aquaculture Practices. But you could also go with mahi mahi. It’s a smaller fish, which tends to be a bit healthier and reproduces quicker. The meat is similar to swordfish. It’s dense and has a wonderfully natural citrus flavor.”
Wild-caught sea scallops
Reid says:
“In the past you always had to take a big dredge and dig into the bottom of the ocean to get the scallops out. That was disrupting the habitat and making it so the shellfish couldn’t reproduce at an acceptable rate. Now you have divers out there collecting them by hand, but it’s just a much more involved process.”
Another option: “People are often surprised that farmed shellfish are one of the most sustainable seafood types you can find on the market. Scallops, clams, mussels, oysters, anything with a shell can be farmed and harvested sustainably.”
Bluefin or bigeye tuna
“It takes them longer to reach maturity than most fish, and what that really comes down to is the nature of how they reproduce. They also swim in schools, which makes them more vulnerable to very large nets that can catch a lot of fish at once. And there’s such a high market demand because it’s such a great-tasting fish.”
Another option: “Skipjack tuna reproduces more often, grows quickly, and is smaller so there’s less of a concern about mercury.”
Credit: Flickr/S Khan
Imported shrimp
Reid says:
“We import something like 90% of our shrimp. Some of the issues are just the way those fisheries are managed. They’re often in sensitive habitats that don’t regrow after they’ve been impacted by a shrimp farm, and they’ll often use antibiotics and pesticides to manage those fisheries, so you’re dealing with chemicals in the water.”
Another option: “Here in the Midwest, there’s a growing movement of sustainable aquaculture, so there are several farms doing things like tilapia or shrimp that are based on land or produced in systems that are recycling the water, using fewer chemicals, and ensuring the health of those animals and also people on the table side.”
Atlantic cod
Reid says:
“This is a deep-water fish whose population basically collapsed in the ‘90s and never really recovered.”
Another option: “There’s a fish called hake which tastes very similar. It breaks off in big chunks, which is a signature feature of cod. Or a softer whitefish like catfish, which believe it or not is very sustainable and amounts to nearly two-thirds of the aquaculture in the US.”
Spanish mackerel
Reid says:
“This has been overfished and not well managed. Basically, this is off the table.”
Another option: “Most other types of mackerel tend to be sustainable because they reproduce a lot and they’re so healthy to eat because of their Omega 3.”
Reid says:
“This is a really common seafood item on many menus, but there’s the same problem: since these are so large they’ve been overfished. They also have an interesting mating ritual where they aggregate in huge spawning grounds in one location, so fishermen can go there during breeding season to collect more than is sustainable.”
Another option: “Any kind of flakier whitefish is a nice alternative. They tend to come into season in the summertime, and there’s usually a regional option. We have great whitefish in Lake Michigan, for instance.”
King crab
Reid says:
“This is a matter of locality and what type of regulations are in place. In places like Russia or Japan, they’re not regulated in a way that’s sustainable, and it has a negative impact on the habitat and other wildlife.”
Another option: “Blue crab or stone crab come from well-managed fisheries in the Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico. Just thinking closer to home is important. And if you’re looking specifically for those really long, meaty legs, Alaskan king crab would be a smarter choice.”
Atlantic halibut
Reid says:
“This is an enormous fish. It can get up to 7ft long and weigh up to 800lbs. Because of its long period of time before reproduction, it’s susceptible to overfishing.”
Another option: “Pacific halibut is a great alternative. In general, the Pacific fisheries tend to be in better shape than the Atlantic because they’ve been fished for fewer years and the Pacific Ocean is just so much bigger that the seafood seems to be in better condition

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Saturday, June 6, 2015

Middle School Reading Lists 100 Years Ago vs. Today Show How Far American Educational Standards Have Declined By Jason W. Stevens - 762 Comments · In Education

There’s a delightful and true saying, often attributed to Joseph Sobran, that in a hundred years, we’ve gone from teaching Latin and Greek in high school to teaching remedial English in college.
Now comes even more evidence of the steady decline of American educational standards.

Last year, Annie Holmquist, a blogger for, discovered a 1908 curriculum manual in the Minnesota Historical Society archives that included detailed reading lists for various grade levels.

According to her research, the recommended literature list for 7th and 8th graders in Minnesota in 1908 included the following:
And also according to her research, the recommended literature list for 7th and 8th graders in Minnesota in 2014 (at one of the area’s finest districts, Edina Public Schools) included the following:
What’s most interesting, however, is Ms. Holmquist’s very thoughtful analysis of the results.
In examining these lists, I noticed three important differences between the reading content of these two eras:
1. Time Period
One of the striking features of the Edina list is how recent the titles are. Many of the selections were published in the 21st century. In fact, only four of the selections are more than 20 years old.
In comparison, over half of the titles on the first list were at least 20 years old in 1908, with many of them averaging between 50 to 100 years old.
Older is not necessarily better, but the books on the first list suggest that schools of the past were more likely to give their students time-tested, classic literature, rather than books whose popularity may happen to be a passing fad.
This observation probably rings true for many students and parents of students today. I keep a pretty good eye on regular high school and college reading lists. Although the occasional older “classic” makes an appearance now and again, I’ve been surprised to find how many teachers actually assign Harry Potter, the Twilight series, Stephen King, and The Hunger Games for classroom reading.
And when I ask these teachers WHY those books are selected, the answer is always the same: Because those are the books that are popular today. There’s a greater likelihood that the student will want to do the reading and enjoy it as well.
The result, of course, is that Shakespeare, Austen, Dickens, Dostoevsky, and Chaucer are relegated to the trash-heap. In school, students are reading the same books they would read at home (if they read at all), and thus never encounter the classics because they lack good help from a good teacher.
Good teachers do not assign Twilight.
More from
2. Thematic Elements
A second striking difference between the two book lists are the themes they explore. The first is full of historical references and settings which stretch from ancient Greece (Tanglewood Tales) to the Middle Ages (Harold, Last of Saxon Kings) to the founding of America (Courtship of Miles Standish). Through highly recognized authors such as Longfellow, Stevenson, Kipling, and Dickens, these titles introduce children to a vast array of themes crucial to understanding the foundations upon which America and western civilization were built.
The Edina list, however, largely deals with modern history, particularly hitting on many current political and cultural themes such as the Taliban (The Breadwinner), cloning, illegal immigrants, the drug war (The House of the Scorpion), and deeply troubled youth (Touching Spirit Bear). In terms of longstanding, classic authors, Mark Twain and Ray Bradbury are the only ones who stand out.
It’s good for children to understand the world in which they live, but as with any area in life, you can have too much of a good thing. A continual focus on modern literature narrows the lens through which children can view and interpret the world. Would it not be better to broaden their horizons and expose them to a balance of both old and new literature?
To summarize the point, American students are not being taught about America.
University students who major in social studies education are not being taught about America.
I’ve talked to several of these types of students who want to teach American history at the middle school or high school level. So, these are our future teachers. And I always ask the same question: When was the American Revolution?
Usually, I am met with dumb stares. Hardly any of them answer correctly: 1775-1783. This is because, for the most part, students who will eventually be teaching American history are not required to take a class on the American Founding. Again, these are our future teachers.

Finally, Ms. Holmquist makes one final observation:
3. Reading Level
Many of the books on the Edina list use fairly simple, understandable language and vocabulary familiar to the modern reader. Consider the first paragraph of Nothing But the Truth:
Coach Jamison saw me in the hall and said he wanted to make sure I’m trying out for the track team!!!! Said my middle school gym teacher told him I was really good!!!! Then he said that with me on the Harrison High team we have a real shot at being county champs. Fantastic!!!!!! He wouldn’t say that unless he meant it. Have to ask folks about helping me get new shoes. Newspaper route won’t do it all. But Dad was so excited when I told him what Coach said that I’m sure he’ll help.
On the other hand, consider the first paragraph of Longfellow’s Evangeline:
“This is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks,
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight,
Stand like Druids of eld, with voices sad and prophetic,
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms.
Loud from its rocky caverns, the deep-voiced neighboring ocean
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest.”

The first example uses simple words and a casual sentence structure, while the second uses a rich vocabulary and a complex writing format. Naturally, some might look at the second selection and say, “Good grief! How do you expect a child to understand that?!?”
But that’s the whole point. Unless we give our students challenging material to dissect, process, and study, how can we expect them to break out of the current poor proficiency ratings and advance beyond a basic reading level?
This, I think, is Ms. Holmquist’s most important point: Our children are not being taught how to read, which really means they are not being taught how to think.
Even classic works written in their native language–English–often appear to students like a second language. This is because they have never been challenged before.
And I sympathize.
The first time I read Hamlet, for example, I filled my book’s margins with notes and scribbles, none of which had anything to do with actually thinking about the book. I was struggling even to keep up with Shakespeare’s plot.
In other words, I had to teach myself how to read before I could even begin the much more difficult task of learning how to think.

Our students are simply not learning these skills in school.
What do you think?
Are these major problems for our students today? Is Ms. Holmquist on to something with her research and analysis? Or was Hamlet’s mother, the Queen, correct when she said: “The lady doth protest too much, methinks.”

Friday, June 5, 2015

7 dangers to human virtue

One Man’s Genius Idea To Grow Tomatoes Hot

One Man’s Genius Idea To Grow Tomatoes Hot
James Bryan had a bright idea that resulted in something brilliant. Gardeners and repurposing fanatics behold, keyhole garden, meets tomato cage, meets drip irrigation. The setup is obviously simple yet highly functional and effective. You can whip one of these up for next to nothing, especially if you salvage the fencing.

Bryan says:

I started may 28th planting 4 tomatoes around a garbage can with holes drilled in the bottom rim and a second row up about 10 inches… buried the can to where the top holes just barely were above the ground… put in two shovels full of compost… then I fill the can up with water every 2 days and try not to water the leaves… these four plants are now 5 ft 4 inches in less that a month and a half and loaded with green tomatoes and about a hundred sets of tomato blossoms


May 28th


acb23e64cfac26dc7177130d571c9f0732End of June, 3 ft cage


July 9

“July 9th after a week of record high temps and very little rain…the plants here are loaded with tomatoes inside the cage and full of blooms too!” -James Bryan via Hometalk
Bryan used a 13 gallon kitchen garbage can to grow the tomato plants above but has since switched to using 5 gallon buckets because they’re a lot cheaper and easier to find in quantities.
You could even use a larger can as long as you provide each plant with 5 gallons of water per week. For instance if you use a 5 gallon bucket and plant 2 tomato plants around it you fill the 5 gallon bucket 2 times per week. Or a 13 gallon can filled twice yields 26 gallons, so you could plant up to 5 plants around it.
“I grow tomatoes now for market, and I have a higher yield per plant than most other growers,” Bryan says.

Editors note: Click here to Find a Local Farmer
This post has been contributed by a third party. The opinions, facts and any media content here are presented solely by the author, and The Times of Israel assumes no responsibility for them. In case of abuse, report this post.

Jewish Women: We Withdraw Our Consent

June 4, 2015, 2:10 am 66
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There is a story told about Shneur Zalman of Liadi (the founder of Chabad known as the Ba’al HaTanya.) One day, as he sat learning in his room, he heard the cries of an infant from a few rooms away. The Ba’al HaTanya interrupted his learning, got up and walked past his grandson in the next room, Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch (known as the Tzemach Tzedek), who was so  intent on his own learning that he didn’t respond to the baby’s screams. The Ba’al HaTanya went and picked up and rocked the infant back to sleep. After the baby was quiet, the Ba’al HaTanya reprimanded his grandson, saying that one who allowed learning to take precedence over the scream of an infant had missed the point of everything that he was learning.

What then, are we to learn from the centuries of pain that Jewish men have ignored – the pain of their wives and daughters, who have been excluded from Jewish ritual and, until very recently, Jewish learning? What do we infer about the spiritual and emotional distress of the Jewish woman, who appears in Jewish religious text as “the other”, the problem to be solved, and the exception to be ruled upon, rather than as a person in her own right?
Throughout the centuries of male-centric Jewish stories and rulings in which Jewish women make appearances as objects of discussion rather than as people, the pain of women’s exclusion comes through. It comes through in the discussions of what rituals Jewish women may participate in. It comes through in the discussion of the chained woman, the agunah. It comes through in the discussion of whether women may put on tefillin, and whether they are included in the obligation to hear the shofar or sit in the sukkah.
The rabbis of this generation would have you believe that Jewish women’s yearning to be full participants in Judaism is a new phenomenon, one that appears only in the modern era in response to the contamination of outside secular influences such as feminism. But if that were true, why are there so many questions throughout our rich halachic literature about what women are allowed to do? Why do women make such frequent appearances in Jewish text and discussion?
We have copies of tefillot that Jewish women wrote themselves and tried to preserve and pass down in the face of their exclusion from Jewish ritual worship, as the result of their desperate need to have some formal religious connection with their Creator. Yet that ancient and ongoing pain, that cry, that response to exclusion and rejection and distance, goes unheard, and even if heard, deemed unworthy of response. For centuries, that baby has been allowed to cry in the cradle unattended, as the men go about “their business.”
The truth is that we, Jewish women, let it be so. We allowed our pain to stand unresolved for centuries. Until finally we demanded that our daughters receive Jewish education and knowledge just as our sons do, that our daughters be allowed access to Jewish text and learning just as our sons are.
Now the rabbis who resisted that sea change have been proved correct, and their deepest fears have come true: Now, Jewish women are coming to demand something else.
Rabbis, gentlemen, rabbotai, my brothers and my friends, we Jewish women are coming to tell you: We. Withdraw. Our. Consent. We do not consent to being excluded from Jewish ritual and practice. We demand to be considered as full Jews, as full members of your congregations, your yeshivot. We demand full access to the texts and learning of our own religion, of our own heritage, of our portion handed directly to us by Hashem. With no go-betweens, with no barriers. With no men allowed to tell us what we may and may not do in our relationship with HKB”H. We, who stood next to you at Sinai, we who said with you naaseh v’nishmah, we stand today and say that heritage, that portion, is just as much ours as it is yours. You may no longer keep us from it with the excuse that God wants it that way, or that it is in our own best interest, or even that it is in your best interest. You do not own the Torah. If God had wanted women to access the Torah only through men as gatekeepers, He would have established that in the Torah. Yet, words in which God requires Jewish women to acquiesce as a gender to any rule other than His – are conspicuously absent.
We are shamed when you publicly thank God for not making you like us. We are shamed when our talmidot chachamot may not receive aliyot, are barred from giving divrei torah, and are barred from teaching and and learning with you. We experience pain. We are no longer willing for our cries to be ignored. We no longer agree to be left in the other room while our fathers, our brothers, our husbands and friends go about their business in the face of our pain.
For centuries, we have stood by you and lived as your fellow Jews. We have brought you into the world. We have cooked and cleaned and shopped and supported you. We have raised you and loved you and cared for you. We have lived with you, and we have died with you. We too have been beaten, starved, and killed, alongside you. We have shared in the dignity, the love, the joy, and the pain of being Jewish through the centuries. And we have waited patiently down through the centuries for you to notice that we, too, are people. With brains. With intellectual capacity. With religious feeling and needs and philosophy in our own right. Our patience, and your ability to squander the invaluable resource of our full partnership with you, are at an end.
Many of our sisters and woman friends have no desire to increase their participation. They are happy in their ancient role of support, of caregiver. They worship Hashem through making beautiful challot, their happy and clean children, and their role in taking care of you and participating in a community vicariously through you. We fully support their right to do so – that is their right as human beings. Just as it is the right of many men who also want nothing to do with formal Jewish ritual. Just like our brothers, fathers, and friends who stand outside shul happily talking while others daven. Just like the many worthy men who don’t learn, and don’t daven with a minyan on a regular basis, but support Jewish institutions with the money they earn, send their children for Jewish education, and live a completely observant Jewish lifestyle. There are many men for whom the trappings and obligations of regular shul worship, of full ritual participation, do not speak to them. Even if these men don’t regularly put on tefillin, don’t learn, and don’t usually daven, we don’t strip them of their right to do so or suggest they are anything less than full Jews.
So too we support those women who are happier outside of shul, who want nothing more than what they have. We are proud of them, and they are part of us. Their lack of wanting to fully participate in formal learning or synagogue ritual does not take away our right to do so, does not give men the right to say that if some women prefer to stay home, then none of us can be full Jews.
We reject your right to question the motivation of Jewish women as a basis for deciding if you will allow us to participate fully in our own religion, in the way that we choose. Your obligation to give others the benefit of the doubt is not related to the gender of the person in question.
It’s not up to you to grant or deny us access to our own tefillot, our own traditions, based on your interpretation of whether we are worthy. We are worthy, or not, as you are.
We live this religion with you. We want to preserve it, maintain it, hand it down to our children healthy, intact, thriving, and whole. We too are scared about the challenges thrown down before us by the modern world, which pulls so many of our children away from our traditions. We want to face those challenges with you, alongside you, struggling with the same texts, and worrying about the same issues.
We are not the same as you. We do not demand that we be treated the same as men. Judaism has an ancient tradition of gender distinction that it is dangerous and foolhardy to simply discard. We have a right to be part of the process of working out how to best honor our traditions while allowing women full access to Jewish learning and ritual. We are not objects for you to make those decisions without us. We have brains, neshamot, and care just as deeply for our religious tradition and heritage as you do. It is ours just as much as it is yours. We are not the exception. We are not the other. We are you. And we have a stake and a voice that we no longer give you permission to ignore.
There is yet another famous crying baby story. Rav Yisrael Salanter, the founder of the mussar movement, was once on his way to shul Erev Yom Kippur, when he walked past a house with a screaming baby in it. He assumed (correctly) that the baby’s mother must have gone to shul for Kol Nidrei, and he went into the house to tend to the baby. His community was not willing to start Kol Nidrei without their rav, so they waited, patient but concerned, for his appearance. Finally the mother of the baby grew concerned about the amount of time she had left her hopefully sleeping infant, and went home to check on the baby – only to find Rabbi Salanter taking care of him. We are again told this story to marvel at the kindness and greatness of the rabbi. But what about the pain of the mother, who wanted so desperately to go to shul for Kol Nidre that she left her sleeping infant at home?
We are not objects in your story. We do not exist for you to be able to tell stories to each other about how wonderful and compassionate you are. We are real people. We too want to go to shul on Yom Kippur. Our pain is just as real as that of the infants you are so wonderful for not ignoring. It is just as worthy of response. You may not continue to worship and learn as if our pain is not there, as if our cries are unworthy of response.
Jewish women are allowed to count toward a minyan under one circumstance, and one circumstance only, in their lifecycle – in the case of martyrdom, when a Jewish woman has to publicly give her life rather than renounce her faith, she counts as a full Jew. Rabbis, brothers, husbands, and friends, we thank you for the privilege and honor of dying as a full Jew, of dying to honor the words of our holy Torah. But we would rather live by them.

Medicine For More Than 50 Diseases: The Tea That Kills Parasites And Cleans The Body of Toxins

» » » » A Medicine For More Than 50 Diseases: The Tea That Kills Parasites And Cleans The Body of Toxins

A Medicine For More Than 50 Diseases: The Tea That Kills Parasites And Cleans The Body of Toxins

Turmeric’s use was present since ancient times and it all started in India. Since then this amazing spice is used all over the world and a lot of people are satisfied from its health benefits.
It is even scientifically proved that it helps in prevention and treatment of cancer and dementia, it’s useful for nausea, vomiting and other diseases and it cleanses the organism out of toxins.
Use the beneficial ingredients of this healing spice to prepare the following remedy:

  • half a tablespoon of ginger
  • half a tablespoon of cinnamon
  • 1/6 Tsp turmeric
  • a pinch of cardamom
  • 17 oz/ 500 ml water
  • half a cup of milk (4 oz)
  • A little honey, if desired
Method of preparation:
Pour 17 oz / 500 ml of boiling water on the mixture of all above mentioned spices.
Mix well and if you desire you can put hot milk into it. After it is ready don’t strain it.
This drink is known as a  miraculous drink that can act as a medicine for more than 50 diseases.  Check it yourself!

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

Missing link found between brain, immune system -- with major disease implications

Missing link found between brain, immune system -- with major disease implications

Implications profound for neurological diseases from autism to Alzheimer's to multiple sclerosis
University of Virginia Health System
IMAGE: Maps of the lymphatic system: old (left) and updated to reflect UVA's discovery. view more
Credit: University of Virginia Health System

  • Vessels directly connecting brain, lymphatic system exist despite decades of doctrine that they don't
  • Finding may have substantial implications for major neurological diseases
  • Game-changing discovery opens new areas of research, transforms existing ones
  • Major gap in understanding of the human body revealed
  • 'They'll have to change the textbooks'

CHARLOTTESVILLE, Va., June 1, 2015 - In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimer's disease to multiple sclerosis.
"Instead of asking, 'How do we study the immune response of the brain?' 'Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?' now we can approach this mechanistically. Because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels," said Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, professor in the UVA Department of Neuroscience and director of UVA's Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG). "It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction. We always perceived it before as something esoteric that can't be studied. But now we can ask mechanistic questions."
"We believe that for every neurological disease that has an immune component to it, these vessels may play a major role," Kipnis said. "Hard to imagine that these vessels would not be involved in a [neurological] disease with an immune component."
New Discovery in Human Body
Kevin Lee, PhD, chairman of the UVA Department of Neuroscience, described his reaction to the discovery by Kipnis' lab: "The first time these guys showed me the basic result, I just said one sentence: 'They'll have to change the textbooks.' There has never been a lymphatic system for the central nervous system, and it was very clear from that first singular observation - and they've done many studies since then to bolster the finding - that it will fundamentally change the way people look at the central nervous system's relationship with the immune system."
Even Kipnis was skeptical initially. "I really did not believe there are structures in the body that we are not aware of. I thought the body was mapped," he said. "I thought that these discoveries ended somewhere around the middle of the last century. But apparently they have not."
'Very Well Hidden'
The discovery was made possible by the work of Antoine Louveau, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis' lab. The vessels were detected after Louveau developed a method to mount a mouse's meninges - the membranes covering the brain - on a single slide so that they could be examined as a whole. "It was fairly easy, actually," he said. "There was one trick: We fixed the meninges within the skullcap, so that the tissue is secured in its physiological condition, and then we dissected it. If we had done it the other way around, it wouldn't have worked."
After noticing vessel-like patterns in the distribution of immune cells on his slides, he tested for lymphatic vessels and there they were. The impossible existed. The soft-spoken Louveau recalled the moment: "I called Jony [Kipnis] to the microscope and I said, 'I think we have something.'"
As to how the brain's lymphatic vessels managed to escape notice all this time, Kipnis described them as "very well hidden" and noted that they follow a major blood vessel down into the sinuses, an area difficult to image. "It's so close to the blood vessel, you just miss it," he said. "If you don't know what you're after, you just miss it."
"Live imaging of these vessels was crucial to demonstrate their function, and it would not be possible without collaboration with Tajie Harris," Kipnis noted. Harris, a PhD, is an assistant professor of neuroscience and a member of the BIG center. Kipnis also saluted the "phenomenal" surgical skills of Igor Smirnov, a research associate in the Kipnis lab whose work was critical to the imaging success of the study.
Alzheimer's, Autism, MS and Beyond
The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it. For example, take Alzheimer's disease. "In Alzheimer's, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain," Kipnis said. "We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they're not being efficiently removed by these vessels." He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore. And there's an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.
Published in Nature
The findings have been published online by the prestigious journal Nature and will appear in a forthcoming print edition. The article was authored by Louveau, Smirnov, Timothy J. Keyes, Jacob D. Eccles, Sherin J. Rouhani, J. David Peske, Noel C. Derecki, David Castle, James W. Mandell, Lee, Harris and Kipnis.
The study was funded by National Institutes of Health grants R01AG034113 and R01NS061973. Louveau was a fellow of Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale.
Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Monday, June 1, 2015

Clean Faster with 8 Secrets from the Pros

You know the feeling: At the first sign of warm weather, the desire to clean house is at an all time high. However, for today's time-starved homeowners, sometimes this traditional spring task seems too daunting to tackle. Chances are you could be cleaning smarter—and faster! Take a tip or two from Debra Johnson of Merry Maids and you'll be well on your way to a cleaner, happier home.

Start a Routine

There's no need to devote an entire Saturday to cleaning a messy house. Instead, start a daily cleaning routine, tackling just one room or big task at a time. Break down overwhelming chores into manageable 30 to 60 minute sessions.

                                                  Dust Busters
When it comes to dusting, microfiber cloths rule supreme. Unlike other dusters, microfiber cloths actually grab dust rather than push it around. Another microfiber advantage? These dust rags can be washed up to 500 times, making them a budget- and eco-friendly choice.

Stay Organized

Easy access to well-organized supplies certainly expedites household cleaning. Store your supplies in a Rubbermaid tote, or even a simple bucket, so that you're ready to carry and clean in any room. Make sure your carryall includes all the essentials like a general-purpose cleaner, scrub brushes, and a few microfiber cloths.

Top to Bottom

It turns out that cleaning a room from top to bottom really does make the process much easier. Remove dust and cobwebs from ceiling fans, bathroom vents, and crown molding before turning your attention to baseboards, floors, and furnishings. Knock out dirt with duster, brooms, or vacuums before wet mopping to eliminate clingy gunk and grime.

Clean More With Less

The more often you clean, the less work you—and your cleansers—will need to do. For instance, doing your dishes right after dinner means you'll need less elbow grease (and degreasers) for shiny, clean plates. Likewise, simply drying your bathroom tiles after showering cuts down on soap scum, meaning you can use gentler, milder products to clean your space.

Use Less Product

Less is always more when it comes to cleaning. Although you might think using more cleanser will get your home cleaner, the opposite is true. For example, too much soap causes build up, which leaves floors sticky.

Underfoot Dirt Prevention

The simplest thing you can do for cleaner floors is simply to remove your shoes when entering your home. Place welcome mats both outside and inside the front door to catch loose dirt before it reaches the rest of the house. For a high tech way to cut down on your household cleaning, invest in an automatic cleaner like  try a high-tech the iRobot, which vacuums floors so you don't have to.

Closets Are Not Part of the Routine

There's one place that should never factor into your spring cleaning routing: the closet. Organizing a closet is a pretty large job, so reserve it for a different day. Get your home spring cleaning done first, then tackle the big closet clean-out so you can devote ample time to sorting, purging, and cleaning smaller surfaces.

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How To: Get Rid of Cockroaches

How To: Get Rid of Cockroaches

If you've had recent roach sightings, grab an effective insecticide or try some of these home-brewed tactics for getting those pests out of your house.

You’re not alone in wanting to get rid of cockroaches. These creepy-crawly insects are a major problem around the country—around the world, even—particularly in dense urban areas. Because they are fond of heat and humidity, they’re most likely to be found in the kitchen and bathrooms. And if you see one, chances are there are many more lurking out of sight. Calling the exterminator may be your first reaction, but you can save money by following the steps below to get rid of those unwelcome visitors.

The next time you see a cockroach, resist the temptation to run away. Instead, screw up your courage and follow the roach to determine how the insect may have found its way into your home. Common entry points are areas around windows; at the joints between walls and floors; where cabinets meet the wall; near radiators and heating pipes; and in gaps around gas or water lines. Seal every hole or crack you come across with silicone caulk.

To eliminate the cockroaches that are living in your midst—the ones under the stove or behind the refrigerator—you have several weapons at your disposal. The most obvious is to use an insecticide, be it a gel, powder, or bait trap. Countless such products exist on the market; choose one formulated specifically for cockroaches. Apply your choice wherever roaches love to hide, but remember to keep your pets and children away from these often toxic treatments.

If you prefer, you can concoct a homemade cockroach killer from some common household products and boric acid, which is readily available at your local pharmacy. Mix equal parts boric acid (which kills the insects), sugar (which attracts the insects), and flour (which binds the ingredients), laying down a thin coating of the powdered blend wherever you suspect roaches are hiding.

Yet another way to lure and kill roaches is with beer. Cut the top off a plastic soda bottle, pour a little beer into the bottom of the container, and then place the top of the bottle upside down into the base so its neck serves as a funnel. Roaches enter the trap in pursuit of the beer but then, unable to escape, they ultimately drown. Once you’ve successfully used the beer trap to claim a few victims, you can dispose of the whole thing without ever having to touch the bugs directly. Great!

Roaches are nothing if not persistent; it may be necessary to keep up your campaign for as long as several weeks. Once you’re confident that your home is roach-free, help keep it that way by maintaining the highest possible level of cleanliness in your bathrooms and especially in the kitchen. Keep food in sealed packages and take out the trash regularly. Clean up immediately after eating or cooking. With a little luck, the infestation won’t recur.

How To: Get Rid of Every Carpet Stain

How To: Get Rid of Every Carpet Stain

When enjoying food and drink 2 home, there are bound to be a few accidentals that could make your carpets a casualty. Any thing can stain, distracting you from the party and straining your composure as host. Don't lose your cool! Treat all stains so you can save your furnishings (and friendships).

Before You Start...

When you spot a spill, get to work quickly to prevent it from turning into a stain. In any of these scenarios, start by scraping away excess material, being careful not to rub in or spread the mess. Then blot the spot with paper towels and water before moving on to other remedies. Thinking about using a commercial spot remover? It's a good idea to test it out in an inconspicuous area of the carpet to make sure the cleaner doesn’t do more damage.

Candle Drippings

Sometimes the warm glow, fragrance, and ambiance of candles isn't worth the waxy mess. Scrape up the drippings, lay down a paper towel, and run an iron set to low heat over the area. As the wax liquefies, the paper towel will absorb it. Continue until all the wax is absorbed.


Coffee, an entertaining essential, can leave behind nasty stains. Once you've soaked up the spill with clean towels, rinse the area with lukewarm water and blot again; repeat until the towel comes away clean after blotting. Still see a stain? Try rinsing with a mixture of one cup of white vinegar and three cups of water until the discoloration disappears.

                                          Cheese Dip
Cheesy dips can spell trouble when spilled. Blot the spot with a pad moistened with dry-cleaning solvent (like Guardsman or Dryel), and change the pad as the solvent picks up the stain. If some stain remains, use an enzyme presoaking solution—but not on carpet constructed of wool or silk fibers. When the stain is gone, flush thoroughly with warm water and allow your clean carpet to dry.


To remove lipstick, nail polish, and other makeup, first carefully scrape off the excess with the blunt edge of a knife or spoon. Apply a little rubbing alcohol or non-acetone-based nail polish remover to the stain and blot with a clean cotton swab. Rinse thoroughly with warm water.

Red Wine

Red wine—and its nonalcoholic cousin, grape juice—may be the most common and damaging stains. If you see a spill, blot the area with clean towels right away, then apply a home remedy of white vinegar followed by plain water. You also can try a carpet shampoo at full strength; rinse thoroughly with water.


Gravy and other butter- or oil-based sauces can be tricky to remove. Cover the spill with talcum powder, cornstarch, or baking soda, and leave for 10 to 20 minutes to absorb the oil. Lightly vacuum the powder, being careful not to smear the stain. Then moisten a sponge with rubbing alcohol and blot to remove the last traces.

Berry Juice

Cranberries, strawberries, or other berry treats can be difficult to remove if not treated immediately. After you've removed the fruit, carefully blot with a solution of 2/3 cup of rubbing alcohol and one tablespoon of white vinegar. Apply three to four times with a clean cloth, then rinse with cold water.

Tomato-Based Sauce

Tomato-based dips like cocktail sauce or salsa can devastate light-colored carpets. Treat with a mixture of one cup of vinegar and three cups of water. Blot with clean towels, and repeat until the area is clean. If a stain remains, try adding a few drops of dishwashing detergent to the diluted vinegar. Always rinse with warm water.

Chewing Gum

An ice cube can help you get out of sticky situations created by chewing gum. First, press the ice to the gum to freeze it, then pry it up from the carpet with a spatula. You can also try using a dry-cleaning solvent like Guardsman or Dryel.


Be careful when sharing holiday spirits! Beer can be problematic to clean up because it contains sugar. If the sugar is left behind in your carpet fibers, it will over time attract dirt and debris and evolve into a gray stain. Blot with clean towels, then saturate the area with a mixture of one tablespoon of dishwashing detergent and one quart of water. Rinse with warm water, then blot dry.